The Different Types of CHD: A Comprehensive Guide

Coronary heart disease (CHD) - Clinic «K+31»

The Different Types of CHD: A Comprehensive Guide provides a thorough overview of the essential information concerning congenital heart disease. It covers topics such as ventricular septal defect, interatrial communications, Fontan, and atrial septal defect.

Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

Congenital heart disease (CHD) in adults has become more common in recent decades. The number of patients diagnosed with CHD in the United States continues to rise at a rate of about 5 percent each year. These individuals are at high risk for stroke, silent brain infarctions, and vascular cognitive impairment. Today, Conquering CHD by increasing medical knowledge and advances in diagnosis and treatment are improving the long-term survival of this population.

Congenital heart disease in adults can range from simple conditions unnoticed in childhood to complex situations that may require surgery. Treatment can include regular checkups and medications. In severe cases, a life-saving heart transplant might be necessary.

For most people with CHD, treatment will be needed throughout their adult lives. A routine heart checkup might include a stress test, which can determine whether your heart is functioning correctly. You may also be prescribed antibiotics before specific procedures. Depending on the severity of the defect, you may only need to see your healthcare provider once a year or every few years.

Interatrial Communications

In coronary heart disease (CHD), interatrial communications can be a significant source of complications. They are caused by the pulmonary veins, which abnormally connect to the systemic vein. This increases proper atrial pressure, which can increase pulmonary vascular resistance. It can also lead to arterial occlusion or hepatomegaly, which can be harmful.

There are two types of interatrial communication, septal and sinus. The former is caused by a defect in the atrial septum, whereas the latter is due to a defect in the sinus venosus.

The most common type of interatrial communication is the septal defect. The septum primum grows from the atrial roof to the endocardial cushion, dividing the single atrium into the left and right atriums. The septum secundum, on the other hand, extends caudally to the SP. Associated malformations include congenital mitral stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.

Surgically, the pulmonary arteries are reduced or shortened, resulting in the development of ASD. Some patients may develop long-term complications, including pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery stenosis.


Fontan CHD is a heart defect that occurs in infants and young children. Children with this condition have a single working ventricle, which pumps blood with low oxygen levels to the body. This makes it difficult for the body to thrive. Fortunately, there are many treatments available for children with this condition.

The Fontan operation is a significant surgery that alters the structure and function of the heart. It is performed when the child is between one and three years old.

The operation involves creating a hole between the conduit that connects the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary artery. This allows the lungs to receive more oxygenated blood and less oxygenated blood from the heart. A cardiac catheterization procedure is then done to close the hole.

There are several risks associated with the Fontan operation. Some of these include the possibility of thromboembolic complications, atrial arrhythmias, heart failure and liver disease. These risk factors can lead to increased anxiety and depression among patients.

Atrial Septal Defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart defect involving a hole in the wall between the atria and atrial septum. This can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and pulmonary hypertension. These defects can also increase your risk of stroke. It is essential to have regular screening to detect any problems.

An atrial septal defect occurs in around one in every 100 live births. Sometimes, it will be detected on a cardiac x-ray, ultrasound or an echocardiogram. Some people may be diagnosed through genetic testing. If the defect is small, there is often no need for treatment. However, larger ASDs can cause severe complications.

Usually, the first signs of an atrial septal defect are a heart murmur resulting from an abnormal blood flow through the heart. Symptoms can include palpitations, dizziness, fatigue, fainting, and irregular heartbeat.

An atrial septal defect is typically repaired through surgery, but some patients do not need this. Surgical procedures can be performed using minimally invasive techniques.